Monday, May 25, 2020
INTRODUCTION: This case involves the suspect being arrested for driving under the influence of alcoholic beverages in violation of CVC 23152(a)-DUI. LOCATION DESCRIPTION: This incident occurred in the 700 block of N. Garfield Avenue. INVESTIGATION: On 10-28-16 at 1354 hours Officer Harrell #3441 and I were dispatched to the area of Garfield Avenue and Orange Grove Boulevard regarding a possible DUI driver. Dispatch advised that Witness Alma Funes described the vehicle as a beige Honda with a license plate of #4HCX801. Funes told dispatch the driver parked his vehicle in front of 721 N. Garfield Avenue. Upon our arrival, Officer Harrell and I were traveling southbound in the 700 block of N. Garfield Avenue approaching Orange Grove Boulevard. I saw a female Hispanic, later identified as Witness Funes standing near the west sidewalk of Garfield Avenue. She began pointing at a tan Toyota Camry, California license plate #4HCX801. The vehicle was parked along the west curb line in front of 729 N. Garfield Avenue. Officer Harrell and I exited our patrol unit (#15) and approached the vehicle. I contacted a male Hispanic, later identified as Suspect Otolio Anibal Perez-Martin in the driver seat. I looked through the rear driver side window and saw a bottle of Modelo beer siting on the rear passenger side floorboard. I saw several closed bottles of Modelo beer bottles in the center console cup holder and front passenger floorboard. I also saw a metal container which had anShow MoreRelated Drinking and Driving Essay2937 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages Drunk driving is considered a serious crime in every state. It is wrong, irresponsible and wastes many lives. People who abuse alcohol hurt everyone around them, endanger public safety, and create carnage on the nations highways. There is nothing positive that can come out of drunk driving, so why do people do it? 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That is, you are free to share, copy, distribute, store, and transmit all or any part of the work under the following conditions: (1) Attribution You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author, namely by citing his name, the book title, and theRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pages 44 Developing Self-Awareness 45 Managing Personal Stress 105 Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively 167 PART II 4 5 6 7 INTERPERSONAL SKILLS 232 233 Building Relationships by Communicating Supportively Gaining Power and Influence 279 Motivating Others 323 Managing Conflict 373 PART III GROUP SKILLS 438 8 Empowering and Delegating 439 9 Building Effective Teams and Teamwork 489 10 Leading Positive Change 533 PART IV SPECIFIC COMMUNICATION SKILLS 590 591 Read MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 PagesWiley Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. 222 Rosewood Drive,Read MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words Ã |Ã 604 Pageswhy ethical issues and professionalism affect HR management as a career field. Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" Ã¢â" 3 HR TRANSITIONS HR Management Contributes to Organizational Success More effective management of human resources (HR) increasingly is being seen as positively affecting performance in organizations, both large and small. A joint venture between General Electric and a Japanese company, GE Fanuc is a manufacturer of factory automation and control products. 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Thursday, May 14, 2020
The Bastille is one of the most famous fortifications in European history, almost entirely because of the central role it plays in the mythology of the French Revolution. Form and Prison A stone fortress based around eight circular towers with five foot thick walls, the Bastille was smaller than later paintings have made it look, but it was still a monolithic and imposing structure that reached to seventy-three feet in height. It was built in the fourteenth century to defend Paris against the English and started to be used as a prison in the reign of Charles VI. This was still its most (in)famous function by the era of Louis XVI, and the Bastille had seen a lot of prisoners across the years. Most people had been imprisoned on the orders of the king with any trial or defense and were either nobles who had acted against the interests of the court, Catholic dissidents, or writers who were deemed seditious and corrupting. There was also a notable number of people whose families had deemed them stray and appealed to the king to have locked up for their (familyÃ¢â¬â¢s) sake. By the time of Louis XVI conditions in the Bastille were better than popularly portrayed. The dungeon cells, whose damp hastened illness, were no longer in use, and most prisoners were housed in the middle layers of the building, in cells sixteen feet across with rudimentary furniture, often with a window. Most prisoners were allowed to bring their own possessions, with the most famous example being the Marquis de Sade who bought a vast quantity of fixtures and fittings, as well as an entire library. Dogs and cats were also permitted, to eat any rats. The governor of the Bastille was given a fixed amount for each rank of prisoner each day, with the lowest being three livres a day for the poor (a figure still better than some Frenchmen lived on), and over five times that for high ranking prisoners. Drinking and smoking were also allowed, as were cards if you shared a cell. A Symbol of Despotism Given that people could end up in the Bastille without any trial, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to see how the fortress developed its reputation: a symbol of despotism, of the oppression of liberty, of censorship, or royal tyranny and torture. This was certainly the tone taken by writers before and during the revolution, who used the very certain presence of the Bastille as a physical embodiment of what they believed was wrong with the government. Writers, many of whom had been released from the Bastille, described it as a place of torture, of living burial, of body draining, mind-sapping hell. The Reality of Louis XVIÃ¢â¬â¢s Bastille This image of the Bastille during the reign of Louis XVI is now largely believed to have been an exaggeration, with a smaller number of prisoners treated better than the general public had been led to expect. While there was undoubtedly a major psychological impact to being kept in cells so thick you couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hear other prisoners Ã¢â¬â best expressed in LinguetÃ¢â¬â¢s Memoirs of the Bastille Ã¢â¬â things had improved considerably, and some writers were able to view their imprisonment as career building rather than life ending. The Bastille had become a relic of a previous age; indeed, documents from the royal court shortly before the revolution reveal plans had already been developed to knock the Bastille down and replace it with public works, including a monument to Louis XVI and freedom. The Fall of the Bastille On July 14th, 1789, days into the French Revolution, a massive crowd of Parisians had just received arms and cannon from the Invalides. This uprising believed forces loyal to the crown would soon attack to try and coerce both Paris and the revolutionary National Assembly, and were seeking weapons to defend themselves. However, arms needed gunpowder, and much of that had been moved to the Bastille by the crown for safety. A crowd thus gathered around the fortress, fortified by both the urgent need for powder, but by hatred for almost everything they believed was wrong in France. The Bastille was unable to mount a long-term defense as, while it had a forbidding number of guns, it had few troops and only two days worth of supplies. The crowd sent representatives into the Bastille to order the guns and powder be handed over, and while the governor Ã¢â¬â de Launay Ã¢â¬â declined, he did remove the weapons from the ramparts. But when the representatives left, a surge from the crowd, an accident involving the drawbridge, and the panicked actions of the crowd and soldiers led to a skirmish. When several rebel soldiers arrived with cannon, de Launay decided it was best to seek some sort of compromise for his men and their honor, although he did consider detonating the powder and most of the surrounding area with it. The defenses were lowered and the crowd rushed in. Inside the crowd found just seven prisoners, including four forgers, two insane, and one stray aristocrat. This fact was not allowed to ruin the symbolic act of seizing such a major symbol of once all-powerful monarchy. However, as a number of the crowd had been killed in the fighting Ã¢â¬â later identified as eighty-three instantly, and fifteen later on from injuries Ã¢â¬â compared to just one of the garrison, the crowdÃ¢â¬â¢s anger demanded a sacrifice, and de Launay was picked. He was marched through Paris and then murdered, his head being displayed on a pike. Violence had bought the second major success of the revolution; this apparent justification would bring many more changes over the next few years. Aftermath The fall of the Bastille left the population of Paris with the gunpowder for their recently seized weapons, giving the revolutionary city the means to defend itself. Just as the Bastille had been a symbol of royal tyranny before it fell, so after it was swiftly transformed by publicity and opportunism into a symbol of freedom. Indeed the Bastille Ã¢â¬Å"was much more important in its Ã¢â¬Å"afterlifeÃ¢â¬ than it ever had been as a working institution of the state. It gave shape and an image to all the vices against which the Revolution defined itself.Ã¢â¬ (Schama, Citizens, p. 408) The two insane prisoners were soon sent to an asylum, and by November a fevered effort had demolished most of the BastilleÃ¢â¬â¢s structure. The King, although encouraged by his confidants to leave for a border area and hopefully more loyal troops, conceded and pulled his forces away from Paris and began to accept the revolution. Bastille Day is still celebrated in France each year.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Iyanna Penigo Ms. Chirat Period 4 May 13, 2017 In the works of MidsummerÃ¢â¬â¢s Night Dream, Venus and Adonis, and, Shakespeare uses themes, motifs, allusions, and imagery to suggest his audience reread and deeply analyze confusing passages several times to fully understand his masterpieces. In the play, A MidsummerÃ¢â¬â¢s Night Dream begins with Theseus, Duke of Athens, preparing for his marriage to Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, with a four-day festival. Egeus, a citizen of Athens, goes to see Theseus with a complaint against his daughter: although Egeus has promised Hermia in marriage to Demetrius, who loves her, Lysander has won HermiaÃ¢â¬â¢s heart and refuses to obey her father and marry Demetrius. Ã¢â¬Å"Theseus speaks to Hermia, warning her toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Shakespeare portrays the lovers as overly serious, as each is sincerely busy with his or her own feelings: Ã¢â¬Å"Helena is fixed about her looks; Hermia becomes self-conscious about her height; Demetrius is plotting on how to keep H ermia from marrying other men, and Lysander believes he is the main character/superhero of this great story.Ã¢â¬ (Shakespeare Act II Scene iii) The breezy world of the fairies and the nonsensical predicaments in which the lovers find themselves is Shakespeares way of making light out of their grave concerns. Next, in Venus and Adonis, the world where there is no man as greatly put together as Adonis. Venus, a goddess of love, sees Adonis and is filed with love for him. Believing that Adonis is her one and only she has her mind set on coming down to earth and making Adonis herÃ¢â¬â¢s. Venus finally got to meet Adonis while he was on a morning hunt in the fields. Once she catches his attention and encouraging him to dismount his horse and talk her, Adonis reveals that he has no interest to talk to any woman, but she eventually forces him to do as she pleases. The more she talks, the more she desires that he would look at her with kind eyes, but the more Adonis wishes to leave and continue in with his hunting. Eventually broken free from VenusÃ¢â¬â¢s arms he gets on his horse
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
1. How did the Native Americans occupy the land? What did they do to take possession and mark ownership? They occupied the land by moving with the seasons. They made temporary settlements around whatever resource they were needed an when that season changed or they no longer needed the resource or it was depleted they would move on and do the same thing elsewhere. 2. How did their Ã¢â¬Å"occupationÃ¢â¬ influence the natural development of the landscape? How did they change the land they occupied? The Indians would cooperate with the seasons instead of trying to do something that they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t during the season. Therefore, by working with instead of against the seasons they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a large influence on the landscape. Since they worked with the seasons they would move whenever the resource they needed was not in season. Therefore they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stay in one place too long to create a large impact. 3. Did the Native Americans have a concept of land ownership? If so, what was it? What did it mean to own the land for a Native American? For the most part Native Americans didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a concept of land ownership. The tribes were very mobile and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stay in one place. They moved from place to place along with the seasons so everything was made so that it could be mobile and could be moved when needed. They did not believe in owning the land however they believe that they should live off of the land. 4. How did the Native Americans use the land they occupied? What did they consider good use for land? Bad use? Native Americans used the land that they had to survive. They moved around seasons to season in order to get the resources that they needed. They would fish if there was a water source around or if there were a lot of land or a forest they would hunt. They considered food and home a good use for land; anywhere they could live. Europeans 1. How did the European Colonists occupy the land in New England? The European colonists came to New England and started raping the land almost immediately. The consensus was to take as much as they could and use it since most of what they took was going back to Europe regardless. However with that being said; they struggled when it came to living off of the land and sustaining them. They also forced many Native Americans off of their land and used it for commercial reasons. 2. How did their Ã¢â¬Å"occupationÃ¢â¬ influence the natural development of the landscape? How did they alter the landscape? The main export to Europe was Tobacco. The Tobacco plant would drain the soil of nutrients and leave it barren. This would leave an area unsustainable for the growth of anything else. The animals that they brought would graze further out because the Europeans had no way to keep up the food for the animals. This would allow them to expand and spread out and develop even more land therefore their presence was great. 3. Did the European Colonists have a concept of land ownership? If so, what was it? What did it mean to own the land for a European Colonist? The Europeans definitely had a concept of land ownership. The land that they took or occupied would be theirs and they could do with it what they wished. The more land the merrier. In England land was very scarce however it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t in New England. Owning land gave Europeans the power to vote and make influence changes around them. It allowed them to feel as if they were important in changing the world around them. 4. How did the Europeans use the land they occupied? What did they consider good use for land? Bad use? They used the land to grow crops and create a functional society. They used the land to create a way of life, which they were unable to do in England. They used it for infrastructure; building homes, churches and businesses. Interactions 1. In what ways did the European colonists view natural resources as commodities? Identify a four items European colonists commodified, then explain the value of these items for colonists? a. Wood a. They used wood for homes and shelter. They also burned it to keep warm. A lot of wood in England was already cleared and gone so it was a scarcity in England but not the New World. This was a tremendous commodity to the colonists. b. Birds a. The birds that the colonists were used to back in Europe were smaller and less tasteful than these new fowl that was found in the New World. Also there was a bountiful amount in New England. c. Fish a. They used fish for food. There are a lot of nutrients in fish and are considered easy to digest. The abundance of fish in the new world was considered a commodity. d. Beasts (Mammals) a. In the forest they had many beasts such as bears and moose. The meat from these creatures were more plentiful and delicious than fish and bird therefore could feed more people. They also used their pelts to warm themselves in the cold. A lot of these creatures were not in England and were there year round in the New World. 2. How did the European attempts at commodifying (viewing natural resources as items to be bought and sold) the environment influence their interactions with the Native Americans? Did the Native Americans commodify natural resources things? The Europeans bucked heads many times with the Native Americans over their treatment of the land. The colonists would abuse the land and ended up killing a lot of vegetation and trees. This was due to the way that they would burn. Their way was different from the Native Americans whose idea was to spare as much as they could of the land. It was the Europeans disrespect for the land, which angered the Native Americans. 3. How did the differing ideas of land ownership that existed between European Colonists and Native Americans lead to trouble between the two cultures? The Native Americans didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any concept of land ownership due to them moving around constantly where as the Europeans brought over the thought of living someplace permanently and using it as private property and doing what they wanted. This angered the Native Americans because they were happy with their way of living and thought that the Europeans were in excess and wondered why the Europeans would want so much. It was also the disrespect of the land that the Europeans seemed to have that angered the Native Americans. 4. In what ways did the Native Americans alter their own culture in order to adapt to the European ideas of land ownership, land occupation, and the commodification of natural resources? The Native Americans responded with hostility towards the Europeans simply because they were confused at their way of life and thought it was different so they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t condone what was happening. Eventually, however, they started doing trade with the Europeans. This trade gave the Europeans a different lookout on the Europeans and gave them things that they otherwise would have been unable to obtain.
Friday, April 10, 2020
A Centenarian is Probably Not a Centurion A Centenarian is Probably Not a Centurion A Centenarian is Probably Not a Centurion By Maeve Maddox A reader was startled when a television announcer misused the word centurion: Perhaps one of your columns could cover the meanings of Ã¢â¬Å"centurionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"centenarian.Ã¢â¬ A news anchor on KTTC-TV, Rochester, Minn., just announced Ã¢â¬Å"There is a new centurion in Clear Lake, Iowa.Ã¢â¬ (This Ã¢â¬Å"new centurionÃ¢â¬ is a woman celebrating her 100th birthday. A centenarian centurion?) I was amused, but assumed that the anchorÃ¢â¬â¢s error was unique and that I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to find enough material to write a post on this misuse. My assumption was that any English speaker who has read a book or watched a movie set in ancient Roman times, or who has a superficial acquaintance with the New Testament knows the historical meaning of centurion. I was wrong. The use of centurion in the place of centenarian is widespread in discussions of longevity on the Web. Here are just three examples: In this article we take lessons from the centurion communities of the world to gain priceless insight into how we too can live the longest. In Okinawa, where the life expectancy is the highest on earth, 803 of 920 centurions who were alive as of September 2011 were women. Daisy McFadden, a longtime resident of New York, will celebrate her 100th birthday this November. Still active, she believes her eating habits have greatly contributed to her longevity, as do most centurions. I found an article in a Canadian publication in which the writer acknowledges that centenarian is the word usually used to describe a person who has reached the age of one hundred, but seems to think that centurion is a better word to describe a centenarian who remains in good health: There are more than 4,600 Canadians now 100 or older. Estimates are that the United States might have a million people 100 or older by 2050. If those estimates are accurate, 43 years from now, many of those Boomers you see every day will be the new centurions, which strikes me as a better way to describe centenarians. Just as 60 is the new 50 today, 100 will be the new 90! Note: Joseph Wambaugh titled one of his novels The New Centurions. As it is about the lives of Los Angeles policemen, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t get the connection. Neither did WambaughÃ¢â¬â¢s British publishers, apparently. In the UK, the book was published as Precinct 45: Los Angeles Police. Centurion and centenarian are among several English words derived from the Latin word for one hundred: centum. In the ancient Roman army, a centurion was the officer in charge of a century, a unit originally comprised of 100 men. In the context of cricket, centurion refers to a player who has scored 100 runs (a century): Surrey teenager Dominic Sibley becomes youngest double centurion in County Championship history Dominic Sibley swapped school books for record books by becoming the youngest batsman in County Championship history to score a double century. This is a valid extension of meaning in a modern context. Using centurion to replace centenarian is unnecessary. Centenarian already exists with the meaning Ã¢â¬Å"a person who has reached the age of one hundred.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Possessive of Proper Names Ending in S34 Writing Tips That Will Make You a Better WriterOne Scissor?
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Biography of Camilo Cienfuegos, Cuban Revolutionary Camilo Cienfuegos (February 6, 1932Ã¢â¬âOctober 28, 1969) was a leading figure of the Cuban Revolution, along with Fidel Castro and ChÃ © Guevara. He defeated Batista forces at the Battle of Yaguajay in December 1958, and after the triumph of the Revolution in early 1959 he took on a position of authority in the Army. Cienfuegos is considered one of the greatest heroes of the Revolution and every year Cuba celebrates the anniversary of his death. Fast Facts: Camilo Cienfuegos Known For: Cienfuegos was a key guerilla leader in the Cuban Revolution.Also Known As: Camilo Cienfuegos GorriarnBorn: February 6, 1932 in Havana, CubaDied: October 28, 1959 (Presumed dead after his plane disappeared over the Straits of Florida)Education: Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes San AlejandroNotable Quote: Vas bien, FidelÃ (Youre doing fine, Fidel)Ã (Uttered during a revolutionary rally in 1959 after Fidel Castro asked Cienfuegos how his speech was going) Early Life Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarn was born in Havana, Cuba, on February 6, 1932. As a young man, he was artistically inclined; he even attended art school but was forced to drop out when he could no longer afford it. Cienfuegos went to the United States for a time in the early 1950s in search of work but returned disillusioned. As a teenager, he became involved in protests of government policies, and as the situation in Cuba worsened, he became more and more involved in the struggle against president Fulgencio Batista. In 1955, he was shot in the leg by Batistas soldiers. According to Cienfuegos, that was the moment at which he decided he would strive to free Cuba from the Batista dictatorship. Revolution Cienfuegos moved to Mexico, where he met up with Fidel Castro, who was putting together an expedition to head back to Cuba and start a revolution. Camilo eagerly joined up and was one of 82 rebels packed into the 12-passenger yacht Granma, which left Mexico on November 25, 1956, and arrived in Cuba a week later. The Cuban Army discovered the rebels and killed most of them, but a small group of survivors was able to hide and later regroup. The 19 rebels spent several weeks in the Sierra Maestra mountains. Comandante Camilo As one of the survivors of the Granma group, Cienfuegos had a certain prestige with Fidel Castro that the others who joined the revolution later did not. By the middle of 1957, he had been promoted to comandante and had his own command. In 1958, the tide began to turn in favor of the rebels, and Cienfuegos was ordered to lead one of three columns to attack the city of Santa Clara (another was commanded by ChÃ © Guevara). One squad was ambushed and wiped out, but Guevara and Cienfuegos ultimately converged on Santa Clara. The Battle of Yaguajay Cienfuegoss force, joined by local farmers and peasants, reached the small army garrison at Yaguajay in December 1958 and besieged it. There were about 250 soldiers inside under the command of Cuban-Chinese captain Abon Ly. Cienfuegos attacked the garrison but was repeatedly driven back. He even tried putting together a makeshift tank out of a tractor and some iron plates, but the plan was not successful. Eventually, the garrison ran out of food and ammunition and surrendered on December 30. The next day, the revolutionaries captured Santa Clara. (Today, a museum in Cienfuegos honor- the Museo Nacional Camilo Cienfuegos- stands in Yaguajay.) After the Revolution The loss of Santa Clara and other cities convinced Batista to flee the country, bringing the revolution to a close. The handsome, affable Cienfuegos was very popular, and upon the success of the revolution was probably the third most powerful man in Cuba, after Fidel and RaÃ ºl Castro. He was promoted to head of the Cuban armed forces in early 1959. In this capacity, he assisted the new Castro regime as it made changes to the Cuban government. Arrest of Matos and Disappearance In October 1959, Fidel Castro began to suspect that Huber Matos, another one of the original revolutionaries, was plotting against him. He sent Cienfuegos to arrest Matos, as the two were good friends. According to later interviews with Matos, Cienfuegos was reluctant to carry out the arrest, but followed his orders and did so. Matos was sentenced and served 20 years in prison. On the night of October 28, Cienfuegos flew back from Camaguey to Havana after completing the arrest. His plane disappeared and no trace of Cienfuegos or the airplane was ever found. After a few frantic days of searching, the hunt was called off. Death CienfuegosÃ¢â¬â¢s disappearance and presumed death have caused many to wonder if Fidel or RaÃ ºl Castro had him killed. There is some compelling evidence on both sides, and historians have not yet reached a conclusion. Given the circumstances of the case, it is possible that the truth will never be known. The case against: Cienfuegos was very loyal to Fidel, even arresting his good friend Huber Matos when the evidence against him was weak. He had never given the Castro brothers any cause to doubt his loyalty or competence. He had risked his life many times for the Revolution. ChÃ © Guevara, who was so close to Cienfuegos that he named his son after him, denied that the Castro brothers had anything to do with Cienfuegoss death. The case for: Cienfuegos was the only revolutionary figure whose popularity rivaled FidelÃ¢â¬â¢s, and as such was one of a very few people who could go against him if he wished. CienfuegosÃ¢â¬â¢s dedication to communism was suspect- for him, the Revolution was about removing Batista. Also, he had recently been replaced as head of the Cuban Army by RaÃ ºl Castro, a sign that perhaps they were planning to move on him. Legacy It will probably never be known for sure what happened to Cienfuegos. Today, the fighter is considered one of the great heroes of the Cuban Revolution. He has his own monument at the site of the Yaguajay battlefield, and every year on October 28 Cuban schoolchildren throw flowers into the ocean for him. Cienfuegos also appears on Cuban currency. Sources Brown, Jonathan C. Cubas Revolutionary World. Harvard University Press, 2017.Kapcia, Antoni. Leadership in the Cuban Revolution: the Unseen Story. Fernwood Publishing, 2014.Sweig, Julia. Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Deontology and Utilitarianism - Essay Example Utilitarianism usually lays stress on cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analyses. For instance, such analysis has been applied to the issue of whether animal experiments are to be permitted in the United Kingdom. The chief disadvantage associated with adopting such a narrow perspective that is solely focussed on the result leads to the acceptance of actions that cannot be justified morally (Purchase 309). Thus morally unacceptable actions may result from the application of this theory. Utilitarianism tends to diminish the responsibility of the individual to some extent, and it is also perceived to be exacting. In accordance with this theory, an individual before acting or taking a decision will assess the overall benefit that will accrue to him, and whether the happiness of all the involved parties will undergo a net increase. In other words, utilitarianism exhorts the people to benefit those whose need is greater, by sacrificing what they possess. This is obviously inconsistent with the past and present social traditions (Lawson 3). The absence of a distinction between superfluous and mandatory actions serves to devalue the individuals who adhere to the tenets of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is of two types, first, act utilitarianism and second, rule utilitarianism. In both these categories, the rightness or otherwise of an act is determined on the basis of the results. Moreover, in rule utilitarianism, the correctness of the rule is judged by the results obtained from the rule (Loewy and Loewy 36). Similarly, in act utilitarianism, the rightness of the act is established by the outcome of the act. The deontological theory requires people to discharge their duties faithfully, whilst examining a moral quandary.